Problems encountered with the 14c dating of peat
The Scripps data set from sites that were selected to represent background, has the longest time coverage for both CO2 and 13CO2 index.
Much more data measured around the globe are published at the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases .
The C 13/12 ratio is calculated as: Delta C13= ((C13/C sample)/(C13/C PDB)-1)*1000.
If we assume that all the CO2 from organic origin can be represented by an average Delta C13 value of somewhere between -15 and -30, and that from inorganic origin has a value of 0 represented by the PDB standard, we can make a first estimate of the organic origin fraction by dividing the index by say -20.
It is estimated that floods have damaged 2,433 miles of highway and 3,508 miles of railway, and Pakistan’s power infrastructure has sustained substantial damages.
The above plot is point to point on averages of monthly averages of 18 sets of data.
It is estimated that over two thousand people have died and over a million homes have been destroyed, and more than twenty million people are injured or homeless as a result of the flooding.
Officials estimate the total economic impact to be as much as USD B, with structural damages estimated to exceed USD B.
Since we want to determine the relative natural and anthropogenic contributions, and anthropogenic emissions are rates, we are more interested in accumulation rates rather than the amount accumulated as shown in the above plots. The long-term values are running twelve month differences (i.e. As the flood waters extended across the country, as much as 20% of Pakistan’s total land area was under water at the flood peak.
The total seasonal short-term rates were calculated as running two month differences (i.e. While the impacts of the floods are still being assessed, the following impacts have been gleaned from the Wikipedia.
The resulting concentration coefficient is an estimate of the average organic origin index value for the time period regressed.